Many parents assume that learning the language of positive discipline is a difficult task. Really, it’s not that hard. Good preschool and elementary school teachers are in and out of this language all day long. It’s like learning any new set of language rules; take a new job and you are likely learning new language. It just takes your attention and practice.
For this introduction to the language we’ll use the example, “Your child wants a toy another child is playing with. Your child grabs the toy and runs away screaming.”
Proactive techniques – These are ways to encourage the wanted behaviors to happen more often.
- Descriptive praise – When it goes well, this is describing the behavior and giving it a label. “You waited for a turn. That was so patient.”
- Positive directions – This is avoiding directions that start with “no,” “don’t” and “stop.” It means telling children what to do rather than what not to do. For this example, it’s avoiding “no grabbing,” and “don’t grab.” It would be saying “ask for a turn,” or “wait for a turn.”
Foundation steps – These are techniques to use on the way into a discipline exchange. They are not meant to change behavior, more to allow emotions, keep communication open and lessen the defensiveness of the listener.
- I messages – I messages give parents a productive way to share their emotion and lay blame. This would be, “I’m frustrated, people are grabbing,” or “He’s upset, he wants that back.” I messages are your emotion or the victim child’s emotion and then either global, “people are grabbing” or passive “he wants that back” blame.
- Empathy – This is acknowledging your child’s emotion. Even when it is big for the situation or seems unreasonable. This might be, “I know you are frustrated, it can be hard to wait.”
- Positive intent – Is the good or just valid reason behind the behavior. For grabbing a toy, it’s as simple as “I know you really wanted that.” This is not to excuse the behavior away, it’s more a starting point for now dealing with the behavior. It’s a way better starting point than the negative intent, “you are such a rude, mean kid.”
Active steps – These are techniques to change or start behavior. They are often a distraction in to the behavior.
- Choices – In general, you give a child two choices about how, when or where they can do the behavior you want them to do. In this case it might be “do you want to give that back or would you like me to give that back,” or “would you like to play with this or this while you wait?” If they didn’t take it yet, “do you want to ask for a turn or do you want my help?”
- Challenges – This is making it a race or a game in some way, “can you give it back before I count to 3?” For this example it’s not so attractive but for others this is often helpful.
- Contribution – A contribution means giving them a related job title or a responsibility. It might be offering the child to be the time keeper or list maker (if there are others waiting for a turn).
End Steps – These techniques are meant to curb behavior. There are a lot of variables to consider between each of these including the age of the child, the level and history of the behavior and fit of each consequence.
- Natural consequences – This is what just might happen in life. In this case, “if you are grabbing toys, he might not want to play with you.”
- Logical positive consequences – This is the good related outcome for the wanted behavior. Best if this is matched in time, intensity and topic. “If you can give the toy back, I will help you to get the next turn.”
- Logical negative consequences – This is the bad related outcome for the unwanted behavior. Best if this is matched in time, intensity and topic. “If you grab the toy again, you may not play with it today.”
The foundation, active and end steps combine to make what are called the Steps of Positive Discipline. This gives parents a framework for moving through any discipline exchange. It starts with techniques to calm emotions and open communication, moves to ways to guide behaviors and ends with ways to curb. The steps are a flexible process meant to address everything from running in the house to hitting a friend.
This language came out of the work of Alfred Adler in the early 1900s, Rudolf Dreikurs in the 1930s and Haim Ginott in the 1960s. STEP classes (Systematic Training for Effective Parenting) became popular in the 1970s and 1980s and continue to be viewed today. Jane Nelsen’s Positive Discipline books have been popular and revised since the 1980s.